‘Copying’ is probably one of the most confused and misunderstood jobs in our field of work, so what is this mysterious craft and how does it work?

In its most simplest form, the job of the copyist is to make the music as readable as possible for the session musicians who will be sight reading it. I’m always blown away when I hear London’s finest musicians playing music perfectly on the first take - music that they’ve never heard before in their lives.


This term is taken from the olden days when copyists would literally copy from the conductor score and generate parts by hand writing the ‘dots’. Thankfully, we now have notation programs like Sibelius, Dorico and Finale to generate parts from. The parts are what we call the music that the players read from, and the score is what the conductor reads from, and those in the booth like the composer, orchestrator and engineer etc.


As part of my bundle service, when I have finished orchestrating the score, I’ll move onto the copying phase of the job. This enables me to go through the parts through with a fine tooth-comb, checking dynamics that may have been missed in the full score and anything else that might look awry. If I’m working from another orchestrator’s score I will then apply my own custom house style to make it look easy and impressive on the eye (thus aiding the musician and making it more enjoyable to look at). Generally though, if I am doing the orchestration and copying, I will work directly into a Sibelius template which has all of my engraving and house style options set up. This saves A LOT of time and the client’s money.

What I’m generally aiming for is a clean look where there is some space both above and below each system. A system basically being a ‘line’ of music. The space is basically so that the player can scribble any adjustments around the music such as dynamic changes or a change of sound such as sul tasto or con sordino in the string section.



Above is a sample viola part from LEGO: The Incredibles which I had the pleasure of orchestrating, copying and music prepping (a posh term for the collating and printing of all of the scores and parts). You’ll see that I’ve got bar numbers on every bar so that the player knows exactly where they are at all times, and if the conductor says to go from bar 28, they know exactly where that is. Some copyists put them at the start of every system but I’ve spoken to session players directly and they say they prefer them on every bar.

You’ll see that I’ve written ‘lazily’ in English and ‘espressivo’ in Italian. You might be wondering why I’ve mixed between two languages and that is because I go with the term that will be most easily understood. I have no idea what ‘lazily’ is in Italian, but ‘espressivo’ is a widely used term in Italian, so it’s best to use it in that language (though it would of course be okay to use it in English too - it’s just preference). I’m not that bothered about using Italian-only terms and nobody has ever questioned it as a session.

You ideally want to stick to the phrasing of the music, though that’s not always possible with film music if it’s underscore-y type stuff with music that doesn’t have set 4 bar phrases. I also try my best to keep hairpins on the same system so that they aren’t split, and with a hairpin any longer than 4 bars I use ‘cresc’ or ‘dim’ text to avoid hairpins from being split across systems.


Working as a copyist is one of those things that sounds easy, but requires a high degree of knowledge of what works and what doesn’t at recording sessions. I’m going to quote something from the Spitfire Audio website because I think that this is something incredibly important, and it highlights just how important a good copyist is.

You can scrimp on many things, but if you think copying is glorified photocopying, you’re mistaken. The single most important thing you need in order to record some music is a pad of music to be on the stands, with the pages in the right order, the cues in the right order. If you don’t have this, you don’t have anything.
— Spitfire Audio

To add to that quote. There is no point having amazing compositions and fantastic orchestrations, only to be let down at the last minute by an inexperienced and bad copyist. Don’t let it happen.



Often, when working with a composer (especially one who hasn't had much experience working in a studio environment with session musicians), I'm asked what the deliverables are to make the process as streamlined as possible. The following may not seem particularly important, but it is definitely something to get right as early as possible in the process to avoid any confusion for either yourself or the orchestrator.


Undoubtedly, one of the most important things a composer can do at the start of the process when working on a television series or feature film etc is to get their template set up in orchestral order. Take note of the following and I will explain my reasoning shortly.

From the top of your template to the bottom, your orchestral template should look like this screenshot below:


I prefer sessions to be laid out this way because, as an orchestrator, I am required to sort through a seriously large amount of tracks and when I copy the quantized MIDI from Sibelius into my template Sibelius file (the file where all of my custom engraved fonts and instruments are laid out), I can almost copy line by line from top to bottom, rather than having to keeping scrolling up and down and then copying into the template file. For example, if the flute part is at the top of the session and then the oboe is down at the bottom where the double basses are, it means that I'm scrolling constantly trying to find where things are which wastes time. I’m happy to do that myself and this certainly isn't a complaint, but it'll cost the client more money and mean that the time I spend sorting through means I inevitably spend less time actually orchestrating.

It is really important to remove any variables and potential things that could be confusing which might slow an orchestrator down. For this reason, it's far easier to set up your DAW session in orchestral order from the start.



I actually prefer that the composer sends me their whole DAW session if they're working within Cubase, which is the DAW I use to quantize MIDI. It means that there can be no errors with the MIDI and usually all of the tracks have been coloured and are easy on the eye rather than an imported session of pure grey MIDI. I would recommend making a duplicate of all of your DAW sessions and adding '_ORCH' at the end.

For example:




This ensures that your original DAW files are always untouched. If I end up re-barring anything in my Cubase session, I tell the composer about it so that they can change it in their original DAW session for later reference.


Sometimes MIDI can bare very little relation to the actual audio that you're hearing and sometimes it can be wise for the composer to write a quick text document describing what particular sound they might be aiming for. This can be useful when the audio isn't exactly what they'd like to be recorded live, and the MIDI is no use to the orchestrator either. If you didn't write a text note here, the orchestrator would use their initiative and do what they think is best for the context, or they would call/email the composer and potentially waste their time or distract them from something important.

Often, if something in particular keeps appearing in a score, it is wise for the composer to inform the orchestrator that this is going to keep occurring. For example, on one film I worked on, the composer mentioned that whenever a certain theme was used, the minim in the second half of the third bar  was meant to be two crotchets. The reason the composer had just played a minim instead of two crotchets was because of the slow attack of the string samples.

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Hopefully this has cleared a dark cloud of confusion as to what you need to provide when working with an orchestrator!